Heaven on Earth Project

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INDIAN COOKING

The following section presents some examples of Indian cooking. Some of the dishes originate from east Asian regions. Many Indian dishes contain ghee which is a clarified milk fat and is therefore unacceptable for vegan preparation. Hindu tradition in India does not, as is done in the West, slaughter the calves born to induce lactation in the cows. This would appear to lift a major offence against vegan philosophy. But apart from the occasional male calf that ends up a well cared for stud, the remainder are forced to wander the roads and streets of India lonely, scavenging for food and bound for genetic death. Milk produced in this way may be marginally better than Western produce, but the difference seems insignificant. Asian dishes originating from countries such as Malayasia and Indonesia often abide by the Islamic Halal dietary code and are often cooked in vegetable oil. The Halal code is the approximate equivalent to the Jewish Kosher code. Both use animal products but only specific animals which have been ritually slaughtered and bled can be eaten. Milk and meat are not used simultaneously in the same kosher dish so products like ghee are not be used.

Ghee contains saturated fats which contribute to the texture and flavours of cooking. They also can contribute to arteriosclerosis which is plaguing Westerners mainly because of high animal consumption. Not all vegetable oils can reproduce the quality of true Indian cooking. Sunflower oil is good. If you feel you can consume some saturated fats in your diet try using some coconut or palm oil in your Indian cooking. Coconut oil especially has a high saturated fat content and absorbs some of the subtle flavours that unsaturated oils do not.

55. DHAL SAUCE

Dhal is the Indian phrase for pea. There are numerous varieties of peas but the most common dhal with which to make sauce is the yellow split-pea. The spices in this recipe are best for split peas but the dhal is also nice if a portion of mung beans are added.

1 cup split-peas, preferably soaked about 2 hours

3 cups fresh water

1 medium onion, chopped

2 garlic cloves, finely chopped

1 d/s grated or finely chopped ginger

2 sticks of celery, chopped

1 medium capsicum

1/2 d/s salt or to taste

1 t/s turmeric powder

1 t/s garam masala or cumin powder

1/4 t/s asafoetida powder, also known as 'hing '

3 d/s vegetable oil for frying

hot chilli or chilli powder to taste

3 d/s lemon juice or 1 t/s tamarind pulp (optional)

Fry the onion, garlic and ginger then add the celery and capsicum and allow to fry gently for a few minutes. Add the hing, fry a short while then mix the turmeric, garam masala, and chilli (if you desire hot dhal) and add this powder to the onion mixture and fry for about 1 minute. Add the water and salt then the peas and stir up the fried mixture. Pressure cook for 5 minutes or boil and simmer until the peas have collapsed into a saucy mass. If simmering you will have to either stir regularly or use a heat disperser to prevent burning at the base of the pot.

Serve with rice, kugelis (# 29), pakora. If you add about 1 chopped potato and more water to the above recipe, you have a dhal soup.

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56. GREEN PEA DHAL

This is a very delicate dhal and colourful dish and can be used as a sauce for a variety of dishes. It is excellent as a dip with bread, crackers or crisps. It is extremely easy to prepare once you have the ingredients. The amount below makes about 2 litres. This dhal may be frozen so you can make more than you can use at one time.

1 kg frozen (or fresh) peas

1 knob garlic, chopped or minced

2 hot chilli ( optional, or to taste)

1 d/s hing

1/2 d/s garam masala (or curry powder)

6 D/S desiccated coconut (optional}

2 d/s salt

1 can coconut cream (optional)

4 d/s olive (or other ) oil

1/2 bunch fresh coriander (optional)

Pour the frozen peas into a bowl and cover them with hot water to a level of about 2 cm. Allow them to stand while they defrost.

Fry the garlic and chilli in the oil on a gentle flame in a saucepan large enough to take the peas and added water. While this is frying, blend or process the peas in their soaking water. Do this only after they have thawed. When the garlic is beginning brown in the oil, add the hing and garam masala if you are using it, mix well while it cooks in. Be sure to keep the flame low and to stir regularly for about one minute.

Add the coconut milk and desiccated coconut and bring to simmer for 5 minutes. Add the peas and salt and slowly bring to a simmer with regular stirring. Simmer for about 5 minutes. Add the optional coriander then transfer to storage jar or serve.


Serve hot or cold. This is an excellent sauce with kugelis or potato pancakes (# 29/30) or alu kofta (# 70) or as a sauce on other curries, or as a dip with bread- especially puri (# 57).

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57. NAAN & PURI BREAD

Indian meals are always served with some kind of bread.This dough can be used for naan (oven baked), puri (deep-fried) or chapatti (frypan) bread.

1 kg plain flour

(optional alternative, 500gm white, 250gm wholemeal,250gm semolina)

1 d/s dried yeast

1 d/s poppy seeds (optional)

1 d/s salt

2-3 d/s margarine or 100 ml oil

500 ml warm water

Place the flour, yeast, poppy seeds, salt and margarine in a large pan or clean plastic bucket. Mix the flour and ingredients with your hands and gradually rub the margarine into the mixture between the palms. This should be done until all the margarine has disappeared and the mixture has an even consistency.

Add the warm (about 30 - 40 degree) water, mix and then knead for a few minutes. Place this dough in a covered bowl or a plastic shopping bag. Lightly tie the bag so that there is room for the dough to expand and leave it to rise for about an hour (depending on the heat of the day). When it has doubled in size, place it in the refrigerator.

Naan

Take a medium handful of the dough, roll it into a sausage shape between your palms then roll it long and flat on a floured bench. Keep turning it as you roll it so that it is covered with dry flour and doesnt stick to the bench. If you are making naan you can place this into a pre-heated oven at about 250 .degrees, or place it into a horizontal toaster, or under a griller immediately or you can leave it covered with a cloth or pan lid on the bench for about 10 - 15 minutes while it rises. When it has risen a little, place it into the baking utensil. It will rise more and form a pocket when it bakes. You will have to trial-and-error the baking according to your particular utensil. It should be crisp on the surface but still moist inside.

Puri

If you are making puri, preheat the deep fryer or saucepan with vegetable oil. Roll the dough into thin ovals or round shapes about half the size of the fryer and about 2 - 3 mm thick. Dust off as much flour as possible before frying to prevent damage to the oil. Remember it will expand a little and form into a pocket. Roll it over a few times and when it begins to brown, remove from oil and drain. Puri is especially nice with curry or green pea dhal, the preceding recipe.

Chapatti

Pre-heat a heavy skillet without oil. Roll a flat bread as in the naan or puri method. Place it into the hot skillet and cook for about 30 seconds. Flip it over and repeat on the other side to seal the dough. To make sure there is even heat to the chapatti you can lightly press it against the skillet base with a flat potato masher or some other utensil. It will form a single pocket or a series of small ones. Once it has risen you can serve it with a little margarine or oil spread on one surface. If you are doing a number of chapatti and have an oven available, preheat it to about 250 degrees. Seal both sides of a rolled chapatti in the skillet and then place it on a rack in the oven where it will rise to a pocket. You can serially cook quite a number of chapatti this way. Serve hot with anything.

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58. STUFFED NAAN

Take a piece of dough and roll it thinly into a long oval shape. slice some mushroom, onion, tomato and fresh coriander. Distribute these slices evenly along the long side of the naan. Add the desired amount of salt and pepper and chilli sauce if you like hot food. Lift over the opposite side and seal into a long roll. Place this into the horizontal toaster or griller and cook. Rotate the roll to cook evenly if necessary. Remove when the bread begins to brown.

Bend the roll into a horseshoe shape before cooking. It can be presented on a plate with salad inside the hole

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59. MASALA DOSA

There are numerous variations to the preparation of these Indian pancakes. This preparation keeps well in a sealed container, but you might wish to scale down the amount you make.
There is a much more authentic recipe in which the rice flour is fermented. It makes a superior dosa. If you want this recipe before this page is updated, email me at mari@lis.net.au

500 gm white of brown rice flour

200 gm glutinous rice flour

100 gm potato flour

1 d/s fenugreek powder (optional)

1 d/s poppy seeds

1 t/s bi-carb

1 d/s salt

Mix all the above ingredients into an even batter and store in a sealable container a cool place.

To prepare a pancake you need a frypan, preferably a non-stick electric variety. If you are using an ordinary frypan adjust the heat between low and moderate. If it is electric you can turn it to nearly maximum. Place a spoonful of margarine or oil in it and allow it to melt and cover the base

Take 2 or 3 dessertspoons of batter in a bowl and add water slowly while whisking the mixture. When it is all suspended but flows easily, pour it into the frypan so that it covers the base evenly . You can achieve this by pouring the batter starting at the centre and spiralling outwards. The frypan should be hot enough that the batter sets almost immediately.

Allow the dosa to fry until it can be seen to be brown and lifting around the edges. It should become crisp by this stage. Do not try to move it until it is almost totally separated from the base. It should lift off the pan base easily and in one piece with a flat spatula. If it starts to break, leave it to fry a little longer. If you want you can fry it for a few minutes on its upper side. The thinness you were able to pour it and the amount of water will determine how crispy you can get the dosa.

While it is cooking heat some curry. When the dosa is cooked place it on a plate facing the way you first cooked it. Pour the curry onto half of the dosa and fold the remainder over it. Garnish with a chutney such as dania # 85 and a little salad and fresh coriander.

These dosa can be served like any pancake with a savoury curry or a sweet topping such as syrup and fruit.

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60. PAKORA

There are many variations to this recipe which is a favourite Indian dish. Any vegetable can be used to make pakora but not all vegetable compliment the flavour of a particular batter. This batter is good with potato, spinach, onion, cauliflower, chilli , sliced tomato, pumpkin, sweet potato, zucchini, mushrooms.

Pakora are cooked as single vegetable pieces or as croquettes which are a mixture of fresh vegetables covered with batter. They are best served soon after cooking but are still nice to eat the following day.

The following quantities will make more batter than you are likely to need for a single evening. Store remaining batter powder in a dry air-tight container. If you are just experimenting, proportion the following recipe about 1: 10.

Batter:

2 kg besan (chic pea) flour or Yellow pea flour

120 gm salt (less if you prefer)

80 gm cumin powder

60 gm garam masala

150 gm garlic powder

1 t/s turmeric

50 gm asafoetida (also known as "Hing")

50 gm fennel seeds

Mix all the above ingredients together well. Store in an air-tight container in a cool spot

Spinach/onion pakora:

Remove the heavy stems from the spinach (silverbeet) and chop the leaves onto fairly large pieces. Peel a brown or white onion, cut into rings then halve the rings. Mix these with the spinach.

Into a mixing bowl place the amount of batter you estimate you will need and add a little water. Mix this in until you have a pasty batter - You may have to add more water or more batter powder. Mix in enough of the spinach and onion so that there is a fairly even coating of batter covering all the vegetable pieces.

Take walnut size portions of this mixture (but do not press into a tight ball) and drop them in the deep-frying oil. Do not over-load the oil, this will cause it to soak into the batter. The pakora should fry very briskly and should be brown within about 1 minute. Over turn the pakora in the oil to ensure even cooking. Remove from oil when crisp and allow to drain.

If you do not have the equipment for deep frying, press it into a pancake and shallow fry the pakora in an ordinary frypan. Alternatively sprinkle the vegetables with dry batter, mix so that there is a coating on all pieces and allow to stand for about 15 minutes. Juice from the vegetables will wet the batter. Form into small croquettes and deep fry.

Serve with a sweet chutney warm or cold with rice, dhal and/or any other dishes -especially curries - in these recipes.

Cauliflower / Spinach Pakora:

Make a fairly thick pasty batter as above. Cut as much cauliflower as you require into small flowerets about the size your thumb. Mix these into the batter until they are evenly coated, then drop them into hot oil or into a shallow frypan one by one so that they cook separately. Fry for about 2 - 3 minutes until they begin to brown. Remove from oil, drain and serve. These may be re-heated in the oil or in a in a microwave oven. You can also freeze them and re-fry later

Cut spinach into 2 or 3 cm strips then mix into batter as with the cauliflower and fry in oil. Try to cook the spinach so that the pieces are thin and about the same size as the cauliflower. Spinach will cook very quickly. Remove from oil, drain and serve. This variety of pakora may be re-heated in a microwave oven.

If you like hot chilli, make a slit in them, dip them in batter and fry the same as cauliflower. The slit is to avoid them exploding during cooking. An excellent way to eat hot chilli.

Mushrooms, if they are succulent and un-open also make an excellent pakora. Cut them into thick slices, cover with batter and fry.

Try serving pakora with a sweet or a hot chutney such as an Indian mango chutney which is available from most imported food retailers. There are numerous sweet chutneys sold under regular supermarket labels.

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61. SAMOSA

These triangular curry pies are very popular but require some effort to prepare so you will probably only make them for special occasions. It is a good idea to prepare the filling the day before you intend making them because it is much easier to work with when it has cooled and set than when it is hot. Alternatively, place the prepared mixture in the freezer after it has cooled a little and make samosa after it has set. The pastry is best made just before use. It goes elastic and hard to roll and seal after refrigeration. Once you set yourself up to produce samosa it is probably worth making more than you need and freezing the others. When you get to the frying stage, lightly fry the samosa you are going to save, cool and then freeze them. They can be defrosted with a microwave or allowed to thaw then re-fried in oil.

Instead of making the pastry you can also make samosa from spring roll sheets. This reduces the work load and the samosa can be frozen without pre-frying. They also do not need to be thawed nor microwaved before cooking. A diagram showing how to fold the samosa with spring roll sheets is given below.

PASTRY:

1 kg plain flour

1 t/s caraway or cumin seeds

1 d/s salt

3 d/s margarine or oil

600 ml boiling water

Mix the flour, salt and margarine by rubbing it between your hands. Add the water, mix in with spoon and when cool enough knead for a few minutes until you have an even and firm dough. Store covered until needed for rolling.

FILLING:

4 medium potatoes, cubed

1 d/s salt or to taste

3 d/s vegetable oil for cooking

1 t/s black mustard seeds

1 d/s grated ginger

1 medium onion, chopped

1 d/s crushed garlic

2-3 hot chilli or 1/2 t/s chilli powder (optional)

1 t/s turmeric

1 t/s fennel seeds

1 t/s garam masala

10 lime leaves (optional)

1 t/s ground cardamom (optional)

1/2 cup fresh or frozen peas

small bunch of fresh coriander, chopped

Pour oil into a deep saucepan or wok and heat. When it is hot add the mustard seeds and stir until they begin to pop. Have the onion and ginger ready to cool the oil at this stage. Add the chopped onion and ginger, fry until soft and beginning to turn clear. Add the fresh chilli and garlic and fry gently for a few minutes. Add the spices and fry for about a minute longer.

Cube the potatoes into 2 cm pieces and add them to the frying mixture. Add water to just below the surface of the potato pieces. Bring the mixture to the boil then simmer until the potatoes are soft and are beginning to turn mushy. It should be a fairly dry mixture by this stage. Keep the water level low so that the final mixture is firm enough to pack into the pastry. Remove from heat and mash any remaining pieces of potato.

Add the frozen peas (add earlier if fresh peas are used) and mix into the potato. The mixture should thicken at this stage. Add the chopped coriander, mix well and transfer into a suitable jar for cooling and storing. When cool this preparation should set into a fairly thick paste which will be easy to use as a filling. It is probably best to make thew mixture the day before.

Take a golf ball portion of prepared dough and after forming an even ball in your palm, roll a thin flat circle on a floured board. The pastry should be about as thick as about 10 pages of this book. Cut this into two equal halves then fold each half over so that you can pinch a join along the cut edge and thus make a cone shaped pouch. Reinforce the join by pressing the teeth of a fork along it. Repeat this for as many samosa that you require but be aware that if you leave these pouches for too long they may begin to fuse together.

Take one of these pastry pouches at a time and let it hang neatly between your thumb and index finger. You should be able to open each pouch without it falling from your hand. Place enough filling mixture into it so that you can close the remaining curved edge of the pastry. You will find this easier if you don't let any filling touch the joining surface. Hold the pouch between your fingers in such a way that when it is finally sealed, the first join runs across the middle of one surface. See diagram below.

If you want to prepare the samosa for future use, drop them into a pot of hot oil and fry for a few minutes until they float. Remove from oil, drain, cool and freeze for future use. Defrost (in a microwave if you have one) before re-frying. If serving immediately fry the samosa a little longer so that all the pastry has cooked. Instead of pre-frying you can also freeze them by arranging them in the freezer so they do not touch. Unless you make them very small it will be difficult to fry them without firstly defrosting. Spring roll pastry on the other hand is thinner and the samosa made from these sheets are generally smaller and therefore they can be fried without defrosting. Once you have mastered the folding technique, spring roll samosa are easier and less time consuming.

Folding spring roll sheets into samosa:


When freezing these samosa, pack them so that they are not touching. They have a tendency to stick and rip apart if they freeze in contact with each other.

Serve alone, with chutney or with any curry dish. They may be eaten hot or cold, but are definitely more appealing when hot.

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62. TOFU / TEMPEH CURRY

This is only one example of what can be done with tempeh which is a very nutritious fermented food. Most health food stores stock tempeh. If you are inclined, you can make your own by following the instructions supplied in this book.

2-3 d/s vegetable oil

1 t/s mustard seeds

1 t/s cumin seeds

1 medium onion cut in 1/4 rings

1 d/s grated or finely chopped ginger

2-3 garlic cloves " "

fresh chilli to taste or 1 t/s chilli powder

1 t/s turmeric

2 t/s coriander powder

1 t/s aniseed powder (optional)

1 sheet nori or other seaweed

1 medium tomato (chopped) or can of peeled tomato or

2 d/s tomato paste

10 lime leaves (optional)

4 d/s grated coconut

6 10 pitted dates chopped (optional)

200 gm tempeh (1 cm cubed) optionally pre-fried

1 tin coconut milk

1-2 d/s salt

1/2 bunch fresh coriander

Heat oil, add mustard and cumin seeds until they begin to pop. Add onion, ginger, chilli and garlic in that order and fry until soft. Add the turmeric and coriander powder and fry for a few seconds. Add the tomato, salt and grated coconut and dates. Add the coconut cream , seaweed and enough water so that the mixture is just covered. Simmer for about 5 minutes. Add the chopped tempeh and extra water if necessary to cover. Bring to the boil and simmer for another 5 minutes. Add the fresh coriander. When beginning to boil again remove from heat and transfer into clean dry jars or serve over rice.

Garnish with freshly chopped coriander.

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63. SAMBAR SALAD

This is an excellent side dish or topping for any curry.

1 medium white onion cut into fine rings

1/2 bunch finely chopped shallots

1 medium tomato cubed

1 small bunch coriander finely chopped

2-3 fresh hot chilli (or to taste)

3-4 d/s lemon juice

Salt to taste

Mix all the above in a bowl serve as side dish or decoration on any curry.

One variation to this, depending on how much you like chilli, is to have only the onion rings, chilli, salt and lemon juice. Chopped garlic is another optional addition to this salad.

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64. PALAK ALU

This is an example of a simple but delicious green curry. It can be prepared and ready to serve within half and hour. This recipe does not include onion and garlic but they may be included after frying the cumin and mustard seeds. Another alternative is to add hing to the oil after frying the mustard and cumin seed.

1 bunch silverbeet or 2 bunches of spinach

1 kg large cubed potatoes

1/2 cup pre-soaked black-eye or lima beans

2 d/s salt (or to taste)

1 d/s black mustard seeds

1 d/s cumin seeds

1 t/s turmeric

1 t/s hing (asafoetida) [optional]

1 d/s coriander powder

1 d/s cumin powder

1/2 d/s cardamom powder (optional)

1 d/s aniseed powder

20 lime leaves (optional)

200 gm coconut cream

3-4 hot chillies chopped finely (optional)

1/2 cup pitted dates or sultanas, or 1 d/s palm sugar

1/2 d/s grated nutmeg

3-4 d/s vegetable oil

Pour the oil into a large pot or wok and heat. Add the mustard and cumin seeds. Stir until they begin to pop. If you want onion and garlic, add at this stage Alternatively add the hing, and stir for a few seconds. Add the chillies, coriander powder, cumin powder and turmeric and cook with constant stirring for about a minute. Be careful not to burn the mixture at this point. Add the cubed potato and blackeye beans, dates and salt, mix, add just enough water to cover (about 1 litre) and bring to the boil. Remove the thick stems from the silverbeet, chop fine and add these to the mixture. For a greener and stronger leaf-tasting curry discard the stems. Chop the leaves and put them aside until the potatoes and beans are soft.

When the potatoes are soft enough to easily pierce with a fork, add the spinach and when boiling lower heat to just simmer for about 5 minutes. Add the nutmeg, mix and simmer for another few minutes then transfer to a clean jar for storing.

ALTERNATIVE

An alternative cooking procedure is to simmer or pressure cook the black eye or lima beans separately with about one litre of water. When the beans are soft remove from heat and when slightly cooled blend to a puree. Be careful if using a normal blender as near-boiling broth can effervesce and erupt out of the blender. An insertion blender is especially good for this because you can carry out the process in the cooking pot. When the bean puree is ready, prepare the seed and spice mixture then add the puree to reduce the high temperature. Stir. Add the potatoes, spinach stems, coconut cream, lime leaves and dates and bring to a simmer. Reduce to a low heat and stir regularly until the potatoes are soft and the sauce is becoming thick. Add the chopped spinach leaves and nutmeg and simmer for a few minutes. Transfer to jars or serve.

Another variation to this recipe is to steam or slightly cook the spinach leaves in a little water while the potatoes are cooking. Puree the leaves and add to the curry mixture when the potatoes are soft. Cook for only a few minutes to retain spinach colour and nutrients.

Serve in a separate bowl with rice or over hot rice. Garnish with a little chopped coriander and some cucumber slices.

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65. SATAY SAUCE

This recipe can be prepared in a few minutes if you have the ingredients on hand. Depending on how seriously you take vegetarianism, you might have to reject most brands of peanut butter because the emulsifying agent 471 in almost all cases except nuttelex margarine is derived from animal.

500 gm roasted peanuts or a jar of peanut butter

1 medium onion finely diced

1 t/s fenugreek seeds

1 t/s fenugreek pdr.

1 t/s hing

2 d/s lemon juice.

fresh chilli or chilli powder to taste

3 medium tomato cubed, or 3 d/s tomato paste

2 d/s palm sugar

1 can coconut cream

1 t/s salt or to taste

3-4 d/s vegetable oil for frying

Heat oil in saucepan with fenugreek seeds. When they begin to brown add the onion and chilli Fry gently for a few minutes and when soft add the hing. Mix well then add the fenugreek powder. Add the tomato, coconut cream, salt and palm sugar, then add about 500 ml of water and stir well. Bring this to the boil and simmer for about 5 - 10 minutes. Mince the roasted peanuts and add them or the jar of peanut butter to the saucepan. Add more water according to how thick you want the sauce. Adjust the salt. Stir regularly on low heat until simmering begins then transfer to clean jars. It is best to use small jars so that the bulk of the sauce can remain un-opened and refrigerated until it is all used.

Serve with tofu / tempeh kebabs, rice or as a dip for spring rolls, celery sticks, steamed vegetables, and marinated tofu (#68).

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66. PAPPADAMS & SATAY

It is possible to buy packets of pappadams from most supermarkets. They keep for years if you keep them in a closed container. Unless you have a big wok choose the smaller variety of pappadam because they usually swell to 2 or 3 times their size when cooked and are difficult to manipulate in a small oil fryer.

The recommended oil for cooking pappadams is coconut oil but this is difficult to obtain in small quantities so it is usually good enough to use any vegetable cooking oil. Sunflower is probably one of best

Simply heat the oil to when it sizzles water droplets. Immerse the pappadams one by one into the oil with a pair of kitchen tongs. If the oil is hot enough they will swell immediately. Remove from oil as soon as this happens and place in something like a toast rack to drain excess oil. If you are preparing for the next day, the pappadams will stay fresh if you seal them from the moisture in the air inside a plastic bag like a supermarket bag. They are very fragile once cooked.

Serve with satay sauce and with curries.

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67. SCRAMBLED TOFU

If you want something for toast, crumble a few tofu or tempeh cubes into a lightly oiled pan and fry for a few minutes. Add soy sauce to your taste. If you have capers in the fridge, sprinkle a few of these in then spread over toast.

For a stronger flavour fry a little onion and/or garlic in the pan first. Crumble in some tofu or tempeh then add a little curry powder, salt or soy and fresh coriander. Spread on toast or savoury crackers.

You need not use marinated tofu. Plain tofu or tempeh can be prepared in the same way. Have a look at the tofu / tempeh Kofta recipe on # 70 for some more ideas about this range of food.

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68. MARINATED TOFU

There are numerous marinades that can be made up for tofu and tempeh. This one has been a standard in the restaurant. It is usually enough to marinate for about 24 hours although you can leave the tofu or tempeh in it for weeks.

500 ml orange juice

50 ml soy sauce

20 ml sesame oil

Cut the tofu or tempeh into 2 cm cubes of smaller slices and immerse them in the marinade and return the container to the refrigerator. This marinade may also be used to mix with crushed tofu and used as a layer in casseroles.

You can deep fry or pan fry the tofu or tempeh. If you are going to deep fry the cubes, place them on absorbent paper for a moment so the marinade doesn't splatter in the hot oil.

When they are brown. remove from oil, drain and arrange them on some hot cooked rice and cover them with satay sauce or cashew sauce (# 71). Serve this with a side salad such as lightly boiled and cooled broccoli flowerets dressed with sprouts and the soy-wine sauce (# 46). If you have roasted pine nuts or roasted sesame seeds, sprinkle some of these as garnish.

Marinated tofu and tempeh can be used in a variety of ways. Kebabs are easy. Just intersperse cubes of tofu or tempeh with mushroom, onion, capsicum, tomato etc. on a skewer. Fry or grill then cover with sauce, such as satay.

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69. GINGER SAUCE

One sauce to have in the back of your mind for any time you feel like having tofu or tempeh is finely grated fresh ginger mixed with a little soy sauce. You can make a small jar of this sauce and refrigerate it. Grate some ginger through a nail-hole grater and mix with about equal proportions of soy or tamari

You can make more exotic sauces with this as a base. For example, add a little sesame oil and / or a little white wine to this sauce. A little vinegar will give it sharpness. Add a little sweetener such as a syrup. There are unique (according to traditional Western diets) culinary experiences to have if you experiment in these areas.

Use any combination of this sauce with tofu, tempeh or as a salad dressing. Add some olive oil and shake well before using on salads.

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70. TOFU / TEMPEH KOFTA

These suggestions area few examples of an appetising presentation of tofu and or tempeh. Solid or silken tofu can be used , or a combination of both. Some stores carry a brand of tofu-tempeh combined. This is a good way to make kofta.

750 gm tofu (solid or combined silken)

250 gm tempeh or tofu-tempeh combined

1 d/s salt

1 d/s poppy seeds or other seed like caraway

1 d/s mustard powder or paste

1 d/s sesame oil (optional)

1 hot chilli (optional)

100 gm cornflour or arrowroot or potato starch

Mash or process the tofu and tempeh until pasty. Mix in all the other ingredients leaving the cornflour until last. Take one walnut size portion , form into a ball and place in a pre-heated deep fryer or a saucepan of hot oil. If it begins to disintegrate, remove from oil and re-mix with the remainder, adding a little more cornflour. Once you are confident the balls will fry without breaking up, cook as many as you need. Fry for only a few minutes. The croquettes should have a golden crust but be soft inside.

Serve with satay, cashew (see next recipe) or ginger sauce on a bed of ong choy (# 19) or spinach mixture (# 20).

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71. CASHEW SAUCE

This is an excellent white sauce or dip. It can be served with almost anything. It can be served in place of satay sauce on tofu kofta or tempeh dishes. Try it on steamed broccoli.

200 gm cashews or cashew pieces
1/2 garlic knob (crushed or chopped)

1 d/s ginger (grated)

1 hot chilli (optional or to taste)

2 d/s poppy seeds

1 d/s aniseed (if unavailable try fennel seeds

1 can coconut cream

4 d/s olive or other vegetable oil

3/4 d/s salt

Pre soak about half of the cashews or pieces for a few hours before cooking. Mince or mash the remainder of the nuts into small pieces. When the soaked nuts are soft blend them to a creamy sauce adding more water if necessary.

Gently fry the garlic, ginger and chilli in the oil. When beginning to brown add the poppy seeds and the aniseed. Fry for a about 30 seconds. Add the crushed cashew pieces and stir well for a few minutes. Add the cashew milk and the coconut cream and salt and bring to the boil slowly with regular stirring. Simmer for one or two minutes and then transfer to the storage container. You can make the sauce more liquid by adding more water or more coconut cream.

This sauce can also be made with a mixture of cashew and raw pistachio nuts.

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72. ALU KOFTA

This is another variation of potato dumplings (# 72) but they are deep fried instead of boiled.

3 or 4 medium potato

1 d/s nuttelex margarine or olive oil

1 d/s salt

1/2 t/s turmeric (optional)

1 t/s fennel or aniseed (optional)

1/2 cup chopped shallots, dill or coriander

100 gm cornflour or (preferably) potato flour

Cut the potato into quarters (peel them only if you want to) add water to 3/4 the depth of potatoes and bring to simmer with the salt, turmeric, seeds and margarine.When soft, mash the potatoes to a fine mix in the cooking, water. Add the shallots or coriander or dill and mix in well while still hot.

Allow to cool enough to touch and then mix in the cornflour or the potato flour. Mix well

Take a walnut size piece, form a ball and drop into a saucepan of hot oil to check that it does not disintegrate. Fry until a golden crust has formed. If the first ball begins to break up remove it from the oil and add it back to the main mixture. Add more cornflour and try again.

Serve alone or with sauce like tahini (# 10) cashew (# 71). They are excellent on the green dhal sauce (# 56).

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73. CHANNA KARI

This is a very satisfying and nutritious curry and very simple to make. It can be made from chic peas or from lima beans, or a mixture of both.

250 gm chic peas soaked 12 - 24 hours

1 d/s salt or to taste

1/4 d/s bi-carb soda

2 - 3 d/s vegetable oil for frying

2 d/s cumin seeds

2 medium onion, chopped

2 d/s fresh ginger, grated or finely chopped

4 - 6 cloves of garlic " " " "

2 -3 hot chilli cut into rings or powder to taste

1/4 d/s hing

1/4 d/s cumin powder

1/4 d/s turmeric

1/8 d/s garam masala

250 gm cubed tomato or can of peeled tomato

50 gm grated or desiccated coconut or a can of

coconut cream

1/4 bunch fresh coriander (optional)

Pressure cook the soaked peas in 500 ml of their soaking water the bi-carb and the salt, for 5 minutes or simmer until they are very soft adding enough water to keep the same level as 500 ml.

Have the onion and ginger ready to cool the oil. Heat the vegetable oil in a wok or a large fry pan then add the cumin seeds. Stir constantly until they begin to pop and turn brown. Once this begins to happen quickly add the onion and ginger to lower the temperature and prevent burning the seeds.

Reduce the heat and continue to fry until the onion and ginger are soft and beginning to brown. Add the garlic and the chilli and fry slowly until soft. Add the dry ingredients, mix in well, fry for about 30 seconds an then remove from heat.

Add the fried mixture to the peas when they are cooked, otherwise add the cooked peas to the fried mixture. Mix in the tomato and the coconut and gently bring the mixture to the boil. Simmer for about 15 to 20 minutes on a heat disperser and adjust the salt and chilli. Take care to prevent burning at the base.

Cut off the coriander roots, wash the stems and leaves and chop into about 2 cm lengths. Add this to the curry mixture and when it begins to evenly simmer again remove from heat and transfer to storage jars.

SERVING: Heat and serve alone as a dip with bread or on rice or corn chips. Top with fresh chopped tomato and green onion or fresh chopped coriander.


The recommended oil for cooking pappadams is coconut oil but this is difficult to obtain in small quantities so it is usually good enough to use any vegetable cooking oil. Sunflower is probably one of best

Simply heat the oil to when it sizzles water droplets. Immerse the pappadams one by one into the oil with a pair of kitchen tongs. If the oil is hot enough they will swell immediately. Remove from oil as soon as this happens and place in something like a toast rack to drain excess oil. If you are preparing for the next day, the pappadams will stay fresh if you seal them from the moisture in the air inside a plastic bag like a supermarket bag. They are very fragile once cooked.

Serve with satay sauce and with curries.

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74. RAJAM ALU

This has been a very popular curry in the restaurant. It is equally nice eaten with rice, corn chips, pita bread, or just salad. Use any red bean such as kidney, pinto, barlotti, etc. The quantity in this recipe will make about 2.5 litres of curry. It will keep well if you use clean dry glass jars for storage and a careful method of transferring from the pot.

250 gm red beans soaked 12 - 24 hours

750 gm potato, about 2 X 2 cm cubed

2 - 3 d/s salt, or to taste

2 - 3 d/s vegetable oil for frying

1 medium chopped onion

3 - 4 d/s fresh ginger grated or finely chopped

6 - 8 large cloves garlic, crushed or finely chopped

5 hot chilli or powder to taste, cut into rings

2 medium capsicum cut into strips

1/8 medium cabbage, shredded

1 d/s cumin powder

1 d/s coriander powder

1/2 d/s hing

1 d/s curry paste

2 medium tomato, cubed or 250 gm tin peeled tomato

100 gm tomato paste

1/2 bunch of fresh coriander

Pressure cook the beans in 750 ml of water and 1/2 the salt quantity you intend to use for 15 minutes or simmer them in a pot with enough water to keep them covered until they are very soft and mash easily between fingers.

Boil the cubed potato in 750 ml of water and the other 1/2 of the salt for about 10 minutes until the cubes are just soft.

While the beans and potato are cooking fry the onion ginger and finally the garlic until they begin to brown a little. Add the chilli and hing and fry slowly for a few minutes longer then add the other spices and stir in well. Add the shredded cabbage, stir and remove from heat after about 1 minute.

When the beans are cooked, mash about half of them into their cooking water with a potato masher. Add the boiled potato and the spicy fried mixture. Add the tomato and the tomato paste, bring to the boil taking care not to burn the base of the curry and then simmer on a heat disperser for about 15 minutes. The mixture will require regular stirring to prevent burning at the base of the pot.

Taste the curry throughout the simmering stage and adjust for chilli and salt. The curry should begin to thicken after about 10 minutes.

Remove the roots from the fresh coriander then wash and cut the stems and leaves into about 2 cm length pieces. Add these to the curry mixture, mix well and once boiling begins, remove from heat and transfer to storage jars.

SERVING: Serve over rice or corn chips. Top with fresh chopped tomato and onion. Excellent topped with tahini sauce (page 14). Eat as above or scoop up with pita bread, puri or pappadams.

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75. SAGU (PUMPKIN) KARI

This is a very delicate curry and if made only mildly hot or with no chilli at all, it is usually liked by children.

2 d/s vegetable oil for frying

1 d/s black mustard seeds

200 gm split peas

1/2 d/s cumin powder

1/2 d/s coriander powder

1/4 d/s turmeric

2 d/s dried rosemary or 3 - 4 twigs of fresh

10 - 20 curry leaves or about 5 dried lime leaves

2 - 3 hot chilli (optional)

2 d/s garlic, crushed or finely chopped

750 ml water

500 gm pumpkin, peeled, seeded and cubed

50 gm grated or desiccated coconut

2 d/s salt or to taste

50 gm coconut milk

4-5 d/s desiccated fine coconut

1/4 bunch fresh coriander

Heat the oil in the pot you are going to use to cook the pumpkin. Add the mustard seeds and stir until they begin to pop, then add the peas, garlic and chilli. Stir this mixture almost constantly until the peas begin to brown.

Add all the dry spices and continue to stir for about 30 seconds. Have the water ready to quickly cool this mixture to prevent burning.

After adding the water stir up any peas or spice which may be stuck to the bottom of the pot. Add the pumpkin, coconut and salt. Stir well and pressure cook for 5 minutes or if simmering, bring to the boil and simmer until the peas are beginning to soften, then add the pumpkin so that it is soft by the time the peas are cooked. If simmering, note the level of water at the beginning of boiling and maintain this level throughout.

Mix the pumpkin and pea mixture when it is soft and adjust the salt and chilli. It may be necessary to place the pot on a heat disperser at this stage.

Add more coconut milk if you want a richer curry and stir while you bring it back to simmer. Remove roots from the coriander, wash and chop the stems and leaves into 2 cm pieces. Add these to the curry, mix well and when simmering begins evenly again, remove from heat and transfer to storage jars.

One alternative method to make this curry is to cook the green pea dhal on page 65. In a separate pot fry the mustard seeds, garlic, chilli and spices and add the pieces of pumpkin. Do not add the split peas in this case. Stir well and then add enough water to about 1/2 cover the pumpkin. Add somewhat less salt and cook on a low flame until the pumpkin is becoming soft. Add the green pea dhal and the coconut cream and cook for a few minutes more. Add the fresh coriander and then store or serve.

SERVING: Serve hot as a dip, on rice or corn chips. Garnish with a little chopped spring onion or coriander.

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76. DHAL - LENTIL SOUP

This is one of the most popular soups in the restaurant. It is very easy to make and it keeps well under refrigeration.

2.5 L water

200 gm lentils

200 gm potato, cubed

400 gm tomato diced or can of peeled tomato

2 d/s tomato paste (optional)

1 medium onion, chopped

1/2 d/s turmeric

1 d/s cumin powder

1/2 d/s hing

3 d/s salt or to taste

2 d/s vegetable oil for frying

1/2 d/s cumin seeds

2 d/s curry leaves

1 medium onion finely chopped

1 d/s garlic

1 D/S tamarind concentrate or 2 d/s lemon juice

1/4 bunch fresh coriander

Pressure cook all the first set of ingredients for 5 minutes or simmer until the lentils are very soft and beginning to collapse. Only about half the lentils should be remaining intact.

While the above is cooking, heat the oil in a fry pan or wok and add the cumin seeds. Stir until they begin to pop. Add the curry leaves stir for about 10 seconds and then add the chopped onion and garlic. Lower heat and fry until soft and lightly brown.

When the soup is cooked add the fried mixture and simmer for about 20 minutes. Adjust the salt content and if you like soup spicy hot, add some chilli chutney. Add the tamarind concentrate or the lemon juice.

Remove roots from the coriander, wash and chop the stems and leaves finely then add to the soup. When the soup begins to simmer evenly again, remove from heat and transfer to storage containers.

SERVE with pappadams or with bread and garnish with fresh chopped coriander.

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77. BRINJAL (EGGPLANT) & DHAL CURRY

This curry can be made with other vegetables such as sweet potato, zucchini, broccoli, cauliflower and pumpkin. It is more commonly known as subji - a vegetable curry. If you intend using a variety of vegetables, you will have to add each one at a stage where it will be evenly cooked with the vegetables that are faster and slower in cooking. A suggested cooking order is potato, pumpkin, sweet potato, eggplant, cauliflower, broccoli and zucchini.

750 gm eggplant

500 gm potato, cubed into 2 cm blocks

2 d/s salt

500 gm peas, fresh or frozen

2 d/s vegetable oil for frying

1 d/s black mustard seeds

1 d/s cumin seeds

1 medium onion, cut into thin 1/2 rings

1 d/s fresh ginger, grated

2 d/s garlic, crushed or finely chopped

6 hot chilli, finely sliced (or to taste)

1 medium capsicum, thinly sliced

1/2 d/s hing

1/2 d/s cumin powder

1/2 d/s coriander powder

1 can coconut milk

3 medium tomato, cubed (optional)

1/8 cabbage, shredded

1/2 bunch fresh coriander

This next process is optional and can be by-passed. Cut the stems from the eggplant and then slice the fruit into about 2 cm cubes. Place the cubes into a colander and sprinkle with plenty of salt. Place the colander in a sink or a bowl on a slant so that the juice released by the salt can drain away. Allow at least one hour for this process and then squeeze and wash the cubes under running water.

Cover the potato with water, add the salt, bring to the boil and simmer until beginning to soften - about 5 minutes. Alternatively add the potato cubes to the fried and spiced mixture below and begin to boil in the curry sauce, adding the eggplant and other vegetables in succession.

Heat the oil in a pot large enough to hold all the ingredients of this recipe. Add the black mustard and cumin seeds and stir until popping begins. Add the onions, and ginger and fry on medium heat until soft and brown. Add the garlic, chilli and capsicum and slow fry for about 5 minutes.

Add the dry spices and stir well. Add the coconut milk. Add the boiled potato and the boiling water and bring to the boil. Alternatively add about a litre of water, mix well and add the raw potato cubes at this stage. Bring to boil gently and simmer for about 5 minutes. The potato flavour in this method is less distinct than when it is parboiled separately. Add the sliced eggplant and stir in well. You may have to add a little water. Add the tomato and the cabbage. There will be some salt retained in the eggplant if you used the salting method so do not make any adjustments to the salt at this stage. Bring to a simmer but stir regularly to prevent burning.

Blend the fresh or frozen peas with just enough water to keep them moving. Add these to the curry when the eggplant and cabbage is beginning to soften. Bring to and even simmer again and then taste for the desired salt strength. The eggplant should have released all the salt into the juice by this stage.

Remove roots from the coriander, wash and finely chop the stems and leaves. After the curry has been simmering for a few minutes and has been well stirred, add the coriander to it. Mix well and when simmering evenly again, remove from heat and transfer to storage jars. Remember that the vegetables will continue to cook while cooling in the storage jars, so remove the curry from heat while the vegetables are still a little firm.

SERVING: This curry can be presented as a stew to be eaten with bread or served topped over rice. Garnish with chopped spring onion or chopped fresh coriander.

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78. BRINJAL CURRY - ALTERNATIVE

This alternative brinjal curry is easier to make and less complex in its flavour You will need to make some panch phora which is :

1 portion brown mustard seeds

1 " fennel seeds

1 " cumin seed

1/2 " fenugreek seeds


150 gm lima beans or split peas (optional)

2 or 3 medium eggplant

1 or 2 red or green capsicum

1 kg cooking tomato or can of peeled tomato

2 d/s tomato paste

100 gm pitted dates (chopped) or 50 gm palm sugar

2 d/s panch phora

1 d/s hing

1 d/s coriander powder

1 d/s turmeric

d/s mace or nutmeg

2 -4 hot chilli

10 - 20 lime leaves

1- 2 d/s salt

50 ml sunflower oil & 50 ml sesame oil

1/2 bunch fresh coriander

The lima beans or split peas are made into stock. A much more balanced and richer curry is achieved you use them. Pressure cook or simmer the beans in about 1 L of water and the salt. When they are very soft, puree them. This should be prepared before you proceed with the next stage

C ut the eggplant into about 2 cm cubes and the capsicum into 2 cm squares. Have this ready before you heat the oil. Choose a saucepan or wok large enough to take all the ingredients. Heat the oil and panch phora until the mustard seeds begin to pop.

Add the hing and stir into the oil for about 10 seconds. Add the eggplant and capsicum and stir on fairly high heat until all the pieces are sealed with the hot oil and seeds. Add the remaining spices and stir until evenly distributed. Continue this for about a minute

Add the bean stock, tomato and dates. Mix in well and slowly bring to the boil. Simmer on low heat with regular stirring until the eggplant is becoming evenly soft and all the dates have dissolved Check for salt and chilli taste. Add the coriander, stir and remove form heat. Transfer to clean jars or serve

SERVE topped with fresh coriander on rice and / or Indian breads

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79. ALU MATA CURRY
(potato & pea)

If you are making this curry, it should be made hot and be fairly oily to bring out its richness.

1 kg potato 2 cm cubed

500 gm fresh shelled or frozen peas

1 medium onion, chopped

1 d/s grated ginger

1/2 knob garlic, grated, chopped or crushed

5 - 10 hot chilli

200 gm tomato paste

1 - 3 d/s salt

1 d/s black mustard seeds

1 d/s cumin seeds

1 d/s ground cumin

1 d/s ground turmeric

1 d/s garam masala

2 d/s curry powder or paste (vindaloo)

1 d/s fennel seeds or powder

1 d/s star anise

100 ml sunflower oil

1/2 cup chopped coriander

If you are using frozen peas, place about half of them into a container and just cover them with hot or warm water to thaw. Allow to stand while cooking and when thawed, blend to a fine pulp. This is an optional procedure . All the peas can be added to the curry whole.

Heat about half the oil in a large saucepan and heat the mustard and cumin seeds until the mustard begins to pop. Add the remainder of the oil, the onion and ginger. Fry on medium heat until soft then add the garlic and chilli. Fry until beginning to brown. Add the remainder of the spices and stir well. Add about 1 litre cold water and stir. Add the tomato paste and salt. Add the potato cubes, bring to the boil then simmer with a lid on the saucepan until the potato is becoming soft. Add the blended peas and simmer for a few more minutes.

Add the remainder of the fresh or frozen peas. When simmering begins again and the peas are beginning to soften add the coriander. Bring to the boil then remove from heat and transfer to storage jars.

Serving: This curry can be served on rice or with bread or chapatti. Garnish with chopped coriander.

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80. BROCCOLI & SPINACH CURRY

This is a saucy curry with very little spice.

200 gm lima beans or split peas

2 bunches (about 1.5 kg) of broccoli

2 d/s salt

1 bunch spinach or silverbeet

2 d/s vegetable oil or milk-free margarine

3 medium onion, sliced into 1/2 rings

2 d/s garlic, crushed

6 hot chilli (or to taste), finely sliced

1/2 d/s hing (optional)

1 d/s cumin powder

1/2 d/s garam masala

1/2 d/s nutmeg or mace powder

1/2 d/s aniseed powder or crushed seeds

1 can coconut cream (optional)

3 heaped d/s "gem flour" a finely ground corn polenta. Standard polenta will do if the fine variety is unavailable.

Pressure cook or simmer the lima beans or split peas in about 300 ml water and 1 d/s salt. When soft, puree.

Remove woody stems from the broccoli, cut the remaining stems and the flowers into small pieces and place in a pot. Add the chilli and salt and the bean stock. Add extra water to just cover the broccoli. Bring to the boil and simmer until you can mash the broccoli easily. For a smoother curry, blend until puree

While the broccoli is simmering, heat the oil or margarine in a wok or saucepan and add the hing. Stir well then add the onion and fry on low heat until it is going brown. Add the garlic. Fry for about 5 minutes then add the other dry spices. Mix well, fry for about 1 minute then remove from heat. Add this to the mashed or blended broccoli.

Wash the spinach or silverbeet, remove roots or extra thick stems, cut into 1 cm slices and place in a covered saucepan with a few spoonfuls of water and heat on low until the leaves have collapsed. Puree and add to the curry with the coconut cream. Simmer for about 5 minutes on low heat.

Remove a little juice into a mixing bowl from the curry mixture and place it in a sink of cold water to cool. Add the gem flour when it is cold enough to touch, stir in with a whisk until there are no lumps remaining. Add this to the simmering curry and quickly stir to prevent it setting in lumps. Simmer another 5 minutes and then remove from heat and transfer to storage jars. If you are using the course polenta, you will have to simmer the curry longer to soften the granules.

SERVING: This curry is best served in a bowl and topped with a little milk-less margarine. Spoon onto rice or eat with chapatti.

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81. SAME (GREEN BEAN) KARI

500 gm fresh or frozen green beans

2 d/s vegetable oil for frying

1 d/s fenugreek seeds or panch phora see Brinjal

1 medium onion, cut to 1/2 rings

2 d/s garlic, crushed or finely chopped (optional)

2 d/s fresh ginger, grated or finely chopped

3 - 4 hot chilli, finely chopped; chilli powder

1/2 t/s hing (optional)

1/2 d/s fenugreek powder

1/2 d/s turmeric

1/2 d/s garam masala

200 ml water

50 gm coconut, fresh grated or desiccated

1 d/s salt

1 can coconut milk

4 d/s peanut butter

4 d/s tomato paste or puree

1/2 cup chopped fresh coriander (optional)

Heat the oil and fry the fenugreek seeds or the panch phora until they begin to brown and release a distinct aroma. Add the onion and ginger and fry for a few minutes. Add the garlic. Fry on medium heat until soft and beginning to brown. Add the chilli for a few minutes. Add the hing and stir, then add the other spices, stir well and then add the water, coconut and salt. Bring to the boil and simmer for about 10 minutes. Mix in the peanut butter until it is smooth then stir in the tomato paste. Simmer for 5 minutes. If you are using fresh beans, add them while bringing the water to the boil.

If you have frozen beans, add them after simmering (they need less cooking). If the curry is still fairly dense, add another can (or part) of coconut milk. Add the fresh coriander, bring to boil and then serve or transfer to storage jars.

SERVING: Alone with bread or poured over hot rice. Garnish with a sprinkle of coriander leaves.

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82. ASPARAGUS CURRY

1 Bunch of asparagus
3 medium potato, cubed for boiling

3 d/s tahini (optional)

1/2 d/s salt or to taste

2 d/s vegetable oil

1/2 d/s black mustard seeds

1/2 d/s black cumin seeds (optional)

1/2 d/s cumin seed

1 medium onion cut to 1/2 rings

3 hot chilli, finely chopped

2 d/s fresh ginger, grated or finely chopped

1/2 d/s turmeric

1/2 d/s cumin powder

1/4 bunch fresh coriander

Boil the potato in just enough water to cover until it is very soft. Blend the potato and water and add the salt and tahini to make a thick but liquid sauce.

Fry the seeds until the mustard begins to pop then add the onion and ginger. Fry gently until soft then add the chilli. Fry another 5 minutes then add the dried spices. Stir well to prevent burning then add the blended potato sauce and bring to the boil with regular stirring to prevent burning at the base of the pot.

Remove the woody sections of the asparagus stems, chop the remainder into about 4 cm sections and add to the sauce. It will take only a few minutes for the asparagus to soften. When soft, remove the roots from the coriander, chop leaves and stems into small sections, and add to the curry. Mix in well and when evenly simmering, remove from heat and serve or transfer to storage container.

SERVING: On rice or with bread.

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83. MUSHROOM - POTATO - PEA CURRY

1 kg mushrooms - quartered

1 kg potato diced and boiled in :

2 d/s salt till just soft.

500 gm fresh or frozen peas - blended with minimum water

1 can coconut milk and/or 200 gm desiccated coconut

1/2 bunch of fresh coriander

Fry:

1 d/s black mustard seeds

1 d/s black cumin seeds

1 onion chopped

1 ginger grated (size 2 walnuts)

1 bunch spring onion

3 d/s minced garlic

10 chopped chilli

add:

1 d/s hing

1/2 d/s turmeric

1 d/s cumin

Mix in the chopped mushrooms to the above and fry for a few minutes. Add the boiled potato, and coconut (if using desiccated form) and simmer until mushrooms almost cooked. If using coconut milk, add it now and simmer for a few minutes. Add the chopped coriander. Simmer about 5 minutes.

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84. IMILI (TAMARIND) CHUTNEY

(Also known as Milia Chatni)

It would be incomplete to have an Indian meal setting without some kind of Chutney. Tamarind is a sweet sour tropical and sub-tropical fruit with a very characteristic flavour. It is eaten fresh but it also makes an excellent chutney and a very refreshing drink. Tamarind is available from Indian and Asian stores in both the crude fibrous form as well as a concentrate. A lot of work is required to process the crude form. It must be soaked with the right amount of water and then tediously sieved to remove the fibres. There are some varieties of prepared tamarind chutney available in Asian supermarkets and health stores. This recipe will assume the use of the concentrate.

200 gm Tamarind concentrate

200 ml water

2 d/s sugar

1/2 t/s Salt

4 d/s Olive oil

1/2 t/s Black mustard seeds

5 Curry leaves

1 d/s fresh grated ginger

1/2 medium onion finely chopped

1 t/s Chilli powder (or to taste)

1/2 t/s Cumin


Bring the water to boil and add the tamarind jelly. Break it up with a fork and allow it to melt completely. Add the sugar and salt and simmer for a few minutes.

Heat the oil in a frypan, add the black mustard seeds and the curry leaves and when the seeds begin to pop, add the onion and ginger. Fry gently until very soft then add the dry spices and fry for a few minutes while stirring. Add this to the tamarind sauce and simmer for about 5 minutes. Remove from heat and transfer to clean dry jars for storage.

Serve with any Indian meal or use as a spread on bread, or with plain rice.

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85. DANIA (CORIANDER) CHUTNEY

1 bunch fresh coriander

2 or 3 hot chillies or chilli powder to taste

4 or 5 cloves garlic

2 d/s lemon juice

1 t/s salt

4 d/s desiccated coconut

1 can coconut milk

1 t/s garam masala

Wash the coriander and remove the roots. Chop finely then blend with all the other ingredients. Store in a clean jar under refrigeration. This should keep for about 2 weeks if well cooled.

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86. MINT &/OR CORIANDER CHUTNEY

If you like mint and / or coriander, try this recipe as a chutney for curries or as a bread or corn chip dip. It is also nice as a spread. Freeze what you do not intend to use. It keeps well frozen but only about a week under normal refrigeration.

Mint and/or fresh coriander

2 d/s Tamarind extract

1/2 t/s salt or to taste

2 t/s sugar

3 medium onions

2 garlic cloves

2 tomatoes

2 d/s fresh grated ginger

1 t/s coriander powder.

1 t/s cumin "

1 t/s chilli " or 3 - 4 fresh chillies

Process all the above in a blender or a food processor. Serve in small bowls.

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87. GARAM MASALA

There are many brands of garam masala already prepared in the spice section of most supermarkets. If you are unable to find any or want to experiment with your own the following is an example of one recipe.

4 parts coriander powder

2 " cumin "

1 " Black pepper

1 " cardamom "

1 " cinnamon "

1/2" nutmeg "

1/2" ground cloves

Store in an air-tight container and away from direct sunlight

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88. CHILLI SAUCE

Sometimes you need a chilli sauce that can be made in minutes without cooking. This sauce keeps well under refrigeration. Shake the following in a bottle and store.

1 part soy sauce

1 part red or white wine

1/2 part syrup

1/4 part sesame oil or olive oil

hot chilli to taste

2 - 3 stems fresh coriander chopped

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89. TOMATO RELISH

This hand written recipe was found inside an old cupboard. Although it was never tried in the restaurant, it seemed too good to throw away. It is transcribed here exactly as written.

5 lb. tomatoes

4 large onion

Skin and cut up tomatoes - also onions - put in separate dishes and put a handful of salt over each. Allow to stand over night. Strain off liquid next morning.

Put 1 quart of vinegar in a pan, add 2 lb. sugar, add onions and tomatoes. Bring to boil. Cook for 1/2 hour.

2 tablespoons plain flour

1 " curry powder

2 " mustard

1/4 t/s cayenne

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90. CHAI TEA

Traditionally chai tea is made with cows milk. This recipe using soy milk is in no way inferior and even surpasses the other variety with taste and will keep longer under refrigeration.

1 L carton soya milk

500 ml water

1 d/s fresh grated ginger

2 sticks cinnamon (crushed)

3 pounded cardamom pods

2 or 3 d/s tea leaves

Mix the soya milk and water and heat with the ginger cinnamon and cardamom and bring to the boil. Be careful to turn off the heat as soon as boiling occurs otherwise it will suddenly froth and spill out over the stove.

As soon as the mixture boils remove from heat and add the tea. Mix and allow to stand for about 5 minutes. Sieve the liquid through a strainer to remove all the suspended ingredients.

Serve with or without the desired amount of sugar.

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